What is Neurofeedback?
Neurofeedback is a specialized therapy that uses cutting-edge brain wave technology to engage your brain in a journey that is enjoyable and empowering. It enables you to participate in your brain’s healing process and helps you improve and regulate your brain function. Neurofeedback is brain training and it draws upon neuroplasticity; your brain’s innate ability to change and optimize.
Using highly specialized non-invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) equipment, Neurofeedback takes advantage of principles of operant conditioning (a reward-based system) to heal and maximize the brain’s full potential. In a way, neurofeedback is brain therapy (or brain training) and once your brain’s pathways have reached their potential in terms of efficiency, you may choose to complement it with our counselling services (also referred to as psychotherapy or mind/emotion therapy).
People often ask questions like: “Do I have ADHD?” or “Am I depressed?” or “How do I get rid of my depression or anxiety?” or “What can I do to have a better marriage, do better in school or do my job better?”
Whether it is through our neurofeedback, life coaching, or counselling services, we want to help you overcome your negative feelings, but, to also find hope, healing, and happiness in a direction of life that you choose.
At Elumind our goal is to help you get a calm, flexible and resilient brain that keeps you healthy both in mind and body.
What is the experience of Neurofeedback like?
Neurofeedback works on the premise of operant conditioning. In a nutshell, Neurofeedback is similar to an EEG where the electrical activity (brain waves) of the brain is monitored by placing electrodes on the scalp. We do the same except we take it one step further. Instead of just looking for pathology, we use the information obtained from the electrodes and we feed it back to your brain via visual and auditory sources (through either watching a movie, or watching guided imagery).
Based on this feedback (reinforcement), your brain will decide whether to stay on the current path or, will change its path (self-regulate) moving toward optimizing its function and thus creating a happier and more focused you!
Is Neurofeedback safe?
Neurofeedback is a non-invasive therapy that is completely safe with no known side effects.
There is a great number of scientific research studies demonstrating Neurofeedback as one of the most effective approaches to treating a wide range of mental health conditions. Published journals include The Journal of Neurotherapy; Journal of Applied Psychophysiology and Bio-feedback; Biological Psychiatry; Child Study Journal; Brain and Cognition; Clinical Neurophysiology; Neuropsychology; International Journal of Psychophysiology; Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine; Journal of Head Trauma; and many others.
For a comprehensive bibliography of Neurofeedback and Biofeedback Research, please visit the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR)
1. Kaiser, D. and Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on Variables of Attention in a Large Multi-Center Trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), pp.5-15.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback training produced significant improvement in attentiveness, impulse control, and response variability. Significant clinical improvement in one or more measures was seen in eighty-five percent of those subjects with moderate pre-training deficits.
2. Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M. and Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: The Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3), pp.180-189.
ABSTRACT: In line with the AAPB and ISNR guidelines for rating clinical efficacy, we conclude that neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered “Efficacious and Specific” (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity.
3. Lubar, J., Swartwood, M., Swartwood, J. and O’Donnell, P. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioural ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 20(1), pp.83-99.
ABSTRACT: This study is significant in that it examines the effects of neurofeedback training on both objective and subjective measures under relatively controlled conditions. Our findings corroborate and extend previous research, indicating that neurofeedback training can be an appropriate and efficacious treatment for children with ADHD.
4. Barabasz, A. and Barabasz, M. (1995). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), pp.1-10.
ABSTRACT: Neurotherapy (or EEG feedback), which addresses the frontal lobe dysfunction, has shown significant, long-term results, by teaching patients to normalize their brainwave responses to stimuli.
5. Nash, J. (2000). Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Neurotherapy. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), pp.30-37.
ABSTRACT: Neurotherapy for ADHD offers an effective alternative for patients whose treatment is limited by side effects, poor medication response and in cases in which the patients and/or their parents refuse to consider medications. Studies indicate clinical improvement is largely related to measurable improvements in the EEG signature, evidenced by declining theta/beta ratios over the frontal/central cortex and/or reduced theta/alpha band amplitudes.
6. HAMMOND, D. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), pp.105-123.
ABSTRACT: A review of more recent research finds that pharmacologic treatment may not be as effective as previously believed. A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns.
7. Keller, I. (2001). Neurofeedback Therapy of Attention Deficits in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), pp.19-32.
ABSTRACT: After ten sessions the analyses of beta activity showed that eight patients were able to increase their beta activity while the remaining four patients showed a decrease of beta activity. The mean duration of beta activity was prolonged about 50% after training. Patients who received NFT improved significantly more in the attention tests than control patients.
8. Mennella, R., Patron, E. and Palomba, D. (2017). Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, pp.32-40.
ABSTRACT: Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated with each individual’s affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect. These findings provide a strong rationale for the use of frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings
9. McKnight, J. and Fehmi, L. (2001). Attention and Neurofeedback Synchrony Training: Clinical Results and Their Significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), pp.45-61.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of 132 cases using this dual approach found that more than 90 percent of the patients reported an alleviation of symptoms. These positive results were found with stress-induced headaches, joint pain, and gastrointestinal disease.
10. White, E., Groeneveld, K., Tittle, R., Bolhuis, N., Martin, R., Royer, T. and Fotuhi, M. (2017). Erratum to: Combined Neurofeedback and Heart Rate Variability Training for Individuals with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Retrospective Study. NeuroRegulation, 4(2), pp.99-99.
ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NFB+HRV training may provide an effective, nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adults. Additionally, NFB+HRV training may improve EEG, blood pressure, resting breathing rate, and HRV.
Autism and Asperger’s
11. Baruth, J., Casanova, M., El-Baz, A., Horrell, T., Mathai, G., Sears, L. and Sokhadze, E. (2010). Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(3), pp.179-194.
ABSTRACT: We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at the early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD treatment and has shown significant benefits in treating core symptoms of ASD with few if any side effects.
12. Coben, R., Mohammad-Rezazadeh, I. and Cannon, R. (2014). Using quantitative and analytic EEG methods in the understanding of connectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a theory of mixed over- and under-connectivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.
ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging technologies and research have shown that autism is largely a disorder of neuronal connectivity. While advanced work is being done with fMRI, MRI-DTI, SPECT and other forms of structural and functional connectivity analyses, the use of EEG for these purposes is of additional great utility.
13. Knezevic, B., Thompson, L. and Thompson, M. (2010). Pilot Project to Ascertain the Utility of Tower of London Test to Assess Outcomes of Neurofeedback in Clients with Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(1), pp.3-19.
ABSTRACT: Following the training, clients with AS were able to plan more efficiently, inhibit premature responses, and shift set with greater ease, as well as solve problems more quickly as measured by their ToLDX scores. On CPTs, clients with AS showed a trend toward less impulsivity.
14. Kouijzer, M., de Moor, J., Gerrits, B., Buitelaar, J. and van Schie, H. (2009). Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(2), pp.496-501.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback mediated suppression of theta power is supposed to promote more flexible functioning of the brain by enhancing activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and improving flexibility of activation in the default mode network supporting the improvement of executive functions and theory of mind in ASD.
15. Pineda, J., Brang, D., Hecht, E., Edwards, L., Carey, S., Bacon, M., Futagaki, C., Suk, D., Tom, J., Birnbaum, C. and Rork, A. (2008). Positive behavioural and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(3), pp.557-581.
ABSTRACT: Two electrophysiological studies tested the hypothesis that operant conditioning of mu rhythms via neurofeedback training can renormalize mu suppression, an index of mirror neuron activity, and improve behaviour in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders
16. Ros, T., Moseley, M., Bloom, P., Benjamin, L., Parkinson, L. and Gruzelier, J. (2009). Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback. BMC Neuroscience, 10(1), p.87.
ABSTRACT: By enabling individuals to self-regulate their brainwave activity in the field of optimal performance in healthy individuals, neurofeedback has been found to improve cognitive and artistic performance.
17. Lecomte, G. and Juhel, J. (2011). The Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Memory Performance in Elderly Subjects. Psychology, 02(08), pp.846-852.
ABSTRACT: Results showed that the members of the Neurofeedback group learned to increase the spectral power of the alpha frequency range as well as the alpha/thêta ratio and that compared with the members of the two other groups, neurofeedback training resulted in a more pronounced decrease, albeit without any relation to changes in EEG activity and the level of stress and anxiety of participants undergoing such training
18. Becerra, J., Fernández, T., Harmony, T., Caballero, M., Garcia, F., Fernández-Bouzas, A., Santiago-Rodriguez, E. and Prado-Alcalá, R. (2006). Follow-Up Study of Learning-Disabled Children Treated with Neurofeedback or Placebo. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 37(3), pp.198-203.
ABSTRACT: This report is a 2-year follow-up to a previous study describing positive behavioural changes and a spurt of EEG maturation with theta/alpha neurofeedback (NFB) training in a group of Learning Disabled (LD) children. In a control paired group, treated with placebo, behavioural changes were not observed and the smaller maturational EEG changes observed were easily explained by increased age.
19. Ros, T., Théberge, J., Frewen, P., Kluetsch, R., Densmore, M., Calhoun, V. and Lanius, R. (2013). Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback. NeuroImage, 65, pp.324-335.
ABSTRACT: Our findings provide neurobehavioral evidence for the brain’s exquisite functional plasticity, and for a temporally direct impact of NFB on a key cognitive control network, suggesting a promising basis for its use to treat cognitive disorders under physiological conditions.
20. Hanslmayr, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M. and Klimesch, W. (2005). Increasing Individual Upper Alpha Power by Neurofeedback Improves Cognitive Performance in Human Subjects. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(1), pp.1-10.
ABSTRACT: Training success (extent of NFT-induced increase in upper alpha power) was positively correlated with the improvement in cognitive performance. Furthermore, the EEG of NFT responders showed a significant increase in reference to upper alpha power.
21. Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. and Baehr, R. (1997). The Clinical Use of An Alpha Asymmetry Protocol in the Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), pp.10-23.
ABSTRACT: Using an Alpha Asymmetry protocol, the purpose of this training was to determine if depression could be alleviated when the subjects learned to increase the activation of the left hemisphere and/ or decrease the activation of the right hemisphere. The results suggest that Alpha Asymmetry neurofeedback training may be an effective adjunct to psychotherapy in the treatment of certain types of mood disorders.
22. Cheon, E., Koo, B. and Choi, J. (2015). The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 41(1), pp.103-110.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder
23. Cantor, D. and Stevens, E. (2009). QEEG Correlates of Auditory-Visual Entrainment Treatment Efficacy of Refractory Depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(2), pp.100-108.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of auditory-visual EEG entrainment (AVE) at a 14 Hz (beta) frequency to decrease symptoms of depression with corresponding changes in neurophysiology. The findings indicate that AVE therapy may be a viable nonmedication therapeutic intervention.
24. Young, K., Siegle, G., Zotev, V., Phillips, R., Misaki, M., Yuan, H., Drevets, W. and Bodurka, J. (2017). Randomized Clinical Trial of Real-Time fMRI Amygdala Neurofeedback for Major Depressive Disorder: Effects on Symptoms and Autobiographical Memory Recall. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(8), pp.748-755.
ABSTRACT: rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdala hemodynamic response to positive memories significantly decreased depressive symptoms and increased the percent of specific memories recalled on an autobiographical memory test. These data support a role of the amygdala in recovery from depression.
25. Hammond, D. (2000). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression with the Roshi. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), pp.45-56.
ABSTRACT: The very first Roshi session produced positive changes, and within five sessions the patient reported feeling less depressed and more energetic. At the conclusion of thirty training sessions, objective testing documented dramatic reductions in depression, somatic symptoms, over emotionality, anxiety, rumination, and fatigue. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
26. Hammond, D. (2003). QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(2), pp.25-52.
ABSTRACT: An MMPI was ad- ministered pre-post to one patient, and she showed dramatic improve- ments not only in OCD symptoms, but also in depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and in becoming extroverted rather than introverted and withdrawn.
27. Barzegary, L., Yaghubi, H. and Rostami, R. (2011). The effect of QEEG- guided neurofeedback treatment in decreasing of OCD symptoms. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, pp.2659-2662.
ABSTRACT: This research proves that neurofeedback training is an effective method for decreasing OCD symptoms. This research’s result is consistent with Hommnd’s studies (2003, 2004). Then, we can use neurofeedback for decreasing obsession and compulsion.
28. Sürmeli, T. and Ertem, A. (2011). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the Efficacy of qEEG-Guided Neurofeedback Treatment: A Case Series. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 42(3), pp.195-201.
ABSTRACT: According to follow-up interviews conducted with them and/or their family members 19 of the subjects maintained the improvements in their OCD symptoms. This study provides good evidence for the efficacy of NF treatment in OCD. The results of this study encourage further controlled research in this area.
29. Kunola, O. and Malley, O. (2007). EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROFEEDBACK TRAINING IN CHRONIC INSOMNIA. 30th ed. [ebook] SLEEP 2007;30(Supplement):A265. Available at: https://neuroptimal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ZIN_okunola_insom_abstract_OMalley.pdf.
ABSTRACT: Early neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training protocols have been shown to be an effective therapy for insomnia (Hauri et al 1982) and it is an integral component of CBT for insomnia.
30. Hoedlmoser, Pecherstorfer, Gruber, Anderer, Doppelmayr, Klimesch and Schabus (2008). Instrumental Conditioning of Human Sensorimotor Rhythm (12-15 Hz) and Its Impact on Sleep as Well as Declarative Learning. Sleep.
ABSTRACT: Relative SMR amplitude increased over 10 instrumental conditioning sessions (in the experimental group only) and this “shaping of one’s own brain activity” improved subsequent declarative learning and facilitated the expression of 12-15 Hz spindle oscillations during sleep. Most interestingly, these electrophysiological changes were accompanied by a shortened sleep onset latency.
31. Berner, I., Schabus, M., Wienerroither, T. and Klimesch, W. (2006). The Significance of Sigma Neurofeedback Training on Sleep Spindles and Aspects of Declarative Memory. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(2), pp.97-114.
ABSTRACT: We conclude that the short NFT before sleep was not sufficient to efficiently enhance phasic spindle activity and/or to influence memory processing. NFT was, however, successful in increasing sigma power, presumably because sigma NFT effects become more easily evident in actually trained frequency bands than in associated phasic spindle activity
Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Coma, and Cerebral Palsy
32. Kober, S., Schweiger, D., Witte, M., Reichert, J., Grieshofer, P., Neuper, C. and Wood, G. (2015). Specific effects of EEG based neurofeedback training on memory functions in post-stroke victims. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12(1).
ABSTRACT: Post-stroke victims with memory deficits could benefit from NF training as much as healthy controls. The used NF training protocols (SMR, Upper Alpha) had specific as well as unspecific effects on memory. Hence, NF might offer an effective cognitive rehabilitation tool improving memory deficits of stroke survivors.
33. Reichert, J., Kober, S., Schweiger, D., Grieshofer, P., Neuper, C. and Wood, G. (2016). Shutting Down Sensorimotor Interferences after Stroke: A Proof-of-Principle SMR Neurofeedback Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback can be successfully applied in a stroke patient and in healthy elderly persons. We suggest that SMR neurofeedback leads to a shutting-down of sensorimotor interferences which benefits semantic encoding and retrieval.
34. Bearden TS, e. (2003). Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions. – PubMed – NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12964455.
ABSTRACT: Over the course of the training, significant reductions in theta amplitude occurred from the training sites as assessed from the post-session baseline periods. Posttraining, a relative normalization of the QEEG was observed from the left posterior head region.
35. Renton, T., Tibbles, A. and Topolovec-Vranic, J. (2015). Neurofeedback as a Form of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy Following Stroke: A Systematic Review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(12), p.e27.
ABSTRACT: Overall, modest positive improvements to a number of cognitive domains were identified following NFT initiation in a stroke population
36. Nelson, D. and Esty, M. (2012). Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in OEF/OIF Veterans. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24(2), pp.237-240.
ABSTRACT: The Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS), a novel variant of EEG biofeedback, was adapted for intervention with seven treatment-refractory Afghanistan/Iraq war veterans, and brought about significant decreases in bothersome neurobehavioral and posttraumatic stress symptoms. FNS may help ameliorate mixed trauma spectrum syndromes.
38. Kim, S., Rath, J., Zemon, V., Cavallo, M., McCraty, R., Sostre, A. and Foley, F. (2018). Problem-solving, biofeedback, and severe brain injury: The moderating role of positive affect. Rehabilitation Psychology, 63(1), pp.148-154.
ABSTRACT: Participants who had the most positive emotions made the most gains in the HRV biofeedback training and performed better posttreatment on a test designed to measure problem-solving ability. Results indicate that positive affect can improve cognition, specifically mental flexibility and abstract thinking. Addressing factors that shape negative affects such as irrational beliefs and self-doubt is an important target for therapeutic intervention even in those with severe, chronic deficits.
Who benefits from Neurofeedback?
Neurofeedback as an interactive brain optimization solution has been used by athletes to enhance performance, but can also be effectively used for executives who want to improve mental efficiency and clarity, as well as for individuals that wish to improve their cognitive functions or treat their mental health conditions.
What types of Neurofeedback does Elumind offer?
At Elumind, we offer three types of Neurofeedback: Infra-low Frequency (ILF) Neurofeedback, LORETA (Low-Resolution Electromagnetic tomography) Neurofeedback, and SKIL-based Neurofeedback. First, we assess you clinically (A full 1.5-2 hours assessment) to gain an understanding of your goals of treatment. Then, we create a map of 55 different brain areas (QEEG or a Quantitative Electroencephalogram) and finally we design a customized protocol using our Neurofeedback technologies.
Recognizing the uniqueness of your brain, this customized protocol will address your individual needs in brain training.